Massacre of Ulama and Santri: Blood in September 1948 Madiun

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An American anthropologist, Robert Jay, who began in 1953, descended to Central Java describing the PKI's atrocities. "They use their power to eliminate not only central government officials, but also ordinary citizens who feel vengeful. They were mainly traditionalist scholars, santri and others who were known for their transfer to Islam. They were shot, burned to death, or chopped, sometimes all three at a time. Mosques and madrassas were set on fire, their hugs' houses were robbed and destroyed. "
The atmosphere of Madiun city which was badly damaged by the PKI Madiun rebellion in 1948.

An informant told Robert Jay, "It's like this, Mas. We started hearing the news from Madiun. The ulamas and their students were locked in a madrasa, then the madrasas were burned. They did nothing, old people who were gray, good people and boys. Just because they are Muslims. People are taken to the town square, in front of the mosque, then their heads are beheaded. The trenches along the road were flooded with three centimeters of blood, Mas. "

In Madiun, Sin Po wrote a report from an eyewitness. After a power struggle following a cleanup,

“Semoea pemimpin Masjoemi dan PNI ditangkep atawa diboenoeh dengan tida dipreksa poela. Kekedjaman di Kota Madiun djadi memoentjak, koetika barisan ‘warok’ ponorogo masoek kota dengen bersendjata revolver dan klewang. Di mana ada terdapat orang-orang Masjoemi, PNI atawa jang ditjoerigakan, zonder banjak tjingtjong lagi lantas ditembak. Belon poeas dengan ini tjara, korban itoe laloe disamperi dan klwangnja dikasi bekerdja oentoek pisahken kepalanja sang korban dari toeboehnja. Kedjadian atawa pemboenoehan stjara ini dilakoekan di berbagai bagian dari kota dan sakiternja, hingga dalam tempo beberapa hari sadja darah manoesia telah membandjiri kota Madioen. Soenggoe keadahan sangat mengerihkan teroetama djika orang melihat dengen mata sendiri, orang-orang jang diboenoeh pating gletak di sepandjang djalan sampe bebrapa hari tida ada jang mengangkat.”

Sin Po, October 1, 1948, proclaiming, "the rebellion of the communists was criticized by the people of FDR-PKI who did not feel sorry for Masjoemi and there were so many people who were masjoemi in the regions that were promoted by the communists that they were stopped by violence."

In Madiun, Sin Po wrote a report from an eyewitness. After a power struggle following a cleanup,

The attack on the Sabilul Muttaqien Islamic Boarding School

Later the Jawa Pos newspaper team consisting of Maksum, Sunyoto and Zainuddin interviewed living witnesses, both figures who participated in the crackdown operations, and the victims who escaped the massacre by the communists. The results of his interviews revealed that the PKI was consuming victims, especially the kiai. One of the targets is Pesantren Sabilul Muttaqien or better known as Pesantren Takeran.
The PKI mob was arrested in Madiun 1948.

Along with the coup against the government, PKI supporters targeted figures from the Takeran Islamic Boarding School who were considered their main enemy. Because, Pesantren Takeran, the leader of Kiai Imam Mursjid Muttaqien, who is still 28 years old, is the most authoritative pesantren in the Magetan area.

On September 17, 1948, exactly on Friday Pon, Kiai Hamzah and Kiai Nurun from Tulungagung and Tegal Rejo said goodbye to Kiai Imam Mursjid. The departure of Kiai Hamzah and Kiai Nurun to Burikan turned out to be the last time. Because on Wage Saturday, September 18, 1948, the Burikan Islamic Boarding School was invaded by the PKI, and pesantren figures and santri, including Kiai Hamzah and Kiai Nurun who were still in the pesantren, were dragged to Batokan Village which is only 500 meters from the Burikan Islamic Boarding School. . Kiai Hamzah and Kiai Nurun were among the victims killed by the PKI in the Batokan massacre hole.

After Friday prayers on September 17, 1948, Kiai Imam Mursjid was visited by PKI figures. Muhammad Kamil knew several people among the PK leaders who had come, such as Suhud and Ilyas aka Sipit. "The snail is actually the Imam Imam Mursjid santri. But somehow he could become a PKI, "said Kamil, one of the witnesses.

Sipit itself, according to Kamil, when it was known as the head of Takeran who everywhere always carried a rifle. But since a long time ago, Kiai Imam Mursjid has begun to doubt the loyalty of the Civil Service. This was revealed from Kiai Imam Mursjid's statement to Kamil about the good intentions of the Civil Service. "At that time I had said that the Sipit could not be trusted anymore, because the Sipit had not prayed anymore," Kamil said.

When visited by PKI figures, Kiai Imam Mursjid was invited to leave the small mushalla at the side of Kamil's house. According to Kamil, Kiai Imam Mursjid will be invited to consult about the Soviet Republic of Indonesia with its PKI. The departure of Kiai Imam Mursjid along with the PKI people was of course troubling the pesantren, because the pesantren did not expect that Kiai Imam Mursjid would just follow the negotiations by the PKI.

Kiai Zakaria, one of the witnesses interviewed by the United Islamic Journalists Team (JITU), who at the time was still a santri (13 years old) at the Sabilil Muttaqin pesantren, told stories

"One of the founders of the pesantren Sabilil Muttaqin, the Kiai of the murshid imam was visited by Suhud. Suhud was a PKI sub-district head. The car is black. At his side, two people stood with one carrying a standgun and one carrying a carbine. In the presence of the santri, Suhud read, "innallaha laa yughoyyiruma bi koumin hatta laa yughoyyiruma bin anfusihim". So he wants to make changes in Indonesia. Then Kiai Imam Mursyid was kidnapped by him. Suhud said, Pak Kiai would like to be invited to negotiate. Pak Kiai was brought there (pointing to the direction of Gorang Gareng). But until now there is no data where he was served (killed). "[8]

At that time the santri at Takeran gathered with anxiety about the plan to leave their kiai with the PKI. After Suhud calmed the atmosphere with his argument, in front of the pendapa the pesantren Kiai Imam Mursjid was raised to a car. But before the car left, Imam Faham, a cousin of Kiai Imam Mursjid as well as a loyal santri, asked the PKI to be allowed to take the car to accompany his leader. The request of Imam Faham was granted by the PKI and they slid out of the pesantren area.

Iskan, one of the witnesses, also stated that the Takeran Islamic Boarding School had been surrounded by hundreds of PKI people. "After Mas Imam Mursjid was taken by car, I saw PKI people standing around the pesantren. "On average they are dressed in black wearing red headbands and armed," Iskan said, shedding tears in memory of her teacher who was very obeyed.

According to Iskan, before that the PKI had indeed threatened, if Kiai Imam Mursjid did not want to surrender and support them, the pesantren would be burned down. Maybe, according to Iskan, if the PKI Imam Mursjid could not be brought by the PKI on Friday, it could be ascertained that the pesantren would be burned and the victim would be very large. Iskan suspects, Kiai Imam Mursjid wanted to join the PKI to avoid greater casualties among his followers.

On Kliwon Sunday, September 19, 1948, another PKI courier arrived again conveying the message that Kiai Imam Mursjid could not go home yet. In fact, they said that the negotiations required the presence of Kiai Muhammad Noer, Kiai Imam Mursjid's cousin who had been leading the Takeran Islamic Boarding School. "At that time they said that Mas Imam Nursjid could only go home if the Kiai Muhammad Noer came to pick up," Kamil said.

Kiai Muhammad Noer, upon hearing the message from the courier, quietly went to the PKI headquarters in Gorang Gareng, 6 kilometers west of Takeran. But in the middle of the road, he was arrested by the PKI and was held captive in a place in Takeran. PKI couriers repeatedly came to the pesantren after Kiai Muhammad Noer was taken to Gorang Gareng. He said that the Kiai Imam Mursjid and Kiai Muhammad Noer could only return after Ustadz Muhammad Tarmudji, the younger brother of Kiai Imam Mursjid who was also a youth figure, came to Gorang Gareng.

The PKI said that the Kiai Imam Mursjid and Kiai Muhammad Noer could only return after Ustadz Muhammad Tarmudji, the younger brother of Kiai Imam Mursjid who was also a youth figure, came to Gorang Gareng.

Getting information like that, Tarmudji immediately escaped. Moreover, he was also told that it was he who had the turn to find the PKI. Despite not finding Tarmudji, the PKI continued to arrest pesantren figures such as Ustadz Ahmad Baidawy, Muhammad Maidjo, Rofi'i, Tjiptomartono, Kadimin, Reksosiswojo, Husein, Hartono, and Hadi Addaba. The latter is a pesantren teacher imported from Al-Azhar, Cairo (Egypt). At that time, the Takeran Islamic Boarding School was very well known and its students came from various regions including from outside Java.

They finally did not return. Even most were found to have been corpses in the PKI slaughter holes scattered in various places in Magetan. Even until 1990, the body of Kiai Imam Mursjid was never found. From the list of victims made by the PKI itself - this list was found by the Siliwangi troops - there is no Kiai Imam Mursjid.

Massacre in the old Cigrok well

In Cigrok Village, south of Takeran, there was an old well used by the PKI as a place to dump victims. This Cigrok old well is located behind the house of To Teruno, a citizen who is actually not a PKI person. It was precisely he who reported the PKI's activities in his well to the Village Chief. Near the house of To Teruno, there was also a Muslim, a santri who witnessed the PKI's savagery in carrying out the massacre in the old well in 1948.

Muslims recounted on the eve of the slaughter, everyone did not dare to leave the house. That night, he heard the sound of a letter, the PKI leader from Petungredjo Village. He also heard the sound of people screaming hysterically for being persecuted. Muslims, who quietly peered through holes from his house, saw the movements of the PKI people in the dimness of the night. Muslims can recognize one of the victims who echoes the call to prayer from the well. The voice, according to him is the voice of K.H. Imam Sofwan from the Kebonsari Islamic Boarding School.

Achmad Idris, a Masyumi figure in Cigrok Village who was then held by the PKI, witnessed the barbaric slaughter of the PKI from a distance. Even though he was faint, he was very familiar with the sound of the call to prayer K.H. Imam Sofwan said from inside the well, because Idris often listened to K.H's recitations. Imam Sofwan.

According to Idris, the massacre by the PKI in the Cigrok well was not carried out with a shotgun or Klewang, but with a club. Idris revealed that the prisoners with their hands bound were facing east of the well one after another. Then, a PKI executioner slammed the club into the back of each prisoner.

At that time, Idris recalled, there were prisoners who immediately after being hit immediately screamed and collapsed into the well. But there were also those who, after being hit, were still strong crawling while howling in pain. Their hands reach for grip. Seeing the victims crawling like that, the PKI people then dragged it away and put them alive into the well. K.H. Imam Sofwan, according to Idris, included those who did not die after being hit. The same thing was experienced by his two sons, namely Kiai Zubair and Kiai Bawani, who were massacred in the old well of Kepuh Rejo Village, not far from the Cigrok well.

PKI people who saw that there were victims who were still living in the well, didn't care at all. They then immediately stockpiled the well with straw, stone and soil. Therefore, there is a statement which states that the victims of the PKI rebellion in 1948 were actually buried alive. Muslim said, in the morning after the massacre he found that the beans and straw in his garden had run out. "Apparently the PKI people cleared all this to accumulate wells," said the Muslim who was threatened by the PKI to keep his mouth shut.

What was included in the Cigrok slaughter hole was at least 22 people. Among the victims, there was K.H. Imam Sofwan, Hadi Addaba 'and Imam Faham. Hadi Addaba 'himself is a teacher from Egypt who was assigned to teach at Takeran Islamic Boarding School. While Imam Faham is a student of K.H. Imam Mursjid who accompanied K.H. Imam Mursjid when he was brought by the PKI car. But apparently in the middle of the road the kiai and his bodyguards were separated. Imam Faham was taken down in the middle of the road and finally found in the Cigrok slaughter hole.

Another story, on Legi Monday, September 20, 1948, suddenly came a truck containing both male and female PKI people. A woman suddenly shouted loudly to the entire population of Kauman. He said that one of the PKI members had been killed in Kauman Village.

"On the truck there are corpses that are wrapped in cloth and only visible to their feet," said Parto Mandojo, who at that time was a food furniture businessman in Kauman. He said that the woman who shouted earlier wanted a Kauman resident who admitted to killing one of the PKI members. But none of the residents of Kauman recognized it because they did not feel they had killed a single person. Finally the PKI group left the threat of burning the Kauman village. This is a cunning tactic of 'seeking' the PKI-style 'killer', because actually, wanting to trap opponents who would block their rebellion.

On Friday Kliwon, September 24, 1948, the PKI was like a crowd of bees invading Kauman Village. The houses were burned so that all the residents came out of hiding. "At that time all Kauman men were taken prisoner and escorted to Masopati after their hands were twisted and tied with bamboo ropes," said Parto Mandojo.

In the demolition of the Kauman Village, no fewer than 72 houses were burned, and around 149 men were taken to Maospati. From Maospati all prisoners were put into the cigarette factory warehouse, then transported with the sugar factory's lorry to the Glodok area. "From the glodok we were moved to Geneng and Keniten. But before being slaughtered, we were saved by the Siliwangi army, "Parto Mandojo said of the tense event.

The burning of Kauman Village was basically part of the PKI's action to suppress the influence of Islam in the community. Because, before the arson, the Madrasah Takeran Islamic Boarding School had also been burned, some time after Kiai Imam Mursjid was captured. The Pesantren Burikan was not spared from the PKI invasion. Then pesantren figures such as Kiai Kenang, Kiai Malik, and Muljono were massacred in Batokan. Another victim of the ulama who was slaughtered by the PKI was the family of the Kebonsari Islamic Boarding School, Madiun.

Achmad Daenuri, son of K.H. Sulaiman Zuhdi Affandi of the Mojopurno pesantren, told that his father was the eldest son of Kiai Kebonsari. According to Daenuri, his father was arrested by the PKI, along with the arrest of the Magetan regent. While his father's younger brother, K.H. Imam Sofwan, who was the leader of the Kebonsari Islamic Boarding School, was arrested by the PKI along with his two sons, Kiai Zubair and Kiai Bawani. "So after the rebellion erupted, the pesantren have really lost their leadership," Daenur concluded.

At the Gontor Islamic Boarding School, the PKI also spread its terror, As told by Kafrawi, a living witness interviewed by the United Islamic Journalist Team (JITU), who at the time, was still a student at the Gontor Islamic Boarding School, Ponorogo. At that time the Gontor boarding school was controlled and threatened by the PKI. Many PKI people dressed in black came to Gontor, then threatened. "If we don't want to give up, we will spend tomorrow and we will sit down," he said. By the kiai, Kafrawi and other small children were told to empty Gontor and move east to Tulung Agung. In Gontor there are only women left. He and six people and their children were still small, then walked to the east. On the way, they were caught by the PKI. They were taken prisoner. "In the end they were taken prisoner in Tulung, the child of Gontor was around 50, and was led again to Gontor after how many weeks he was detained. Pak Jahal (teacher of the Gontor Islamic boarding school) and especially the seniors were brought to Ponogoro first, and entered into a prison near the Muhammadiyah mosque. All were killed except Pak Jahal, "said Kafrawi. [12]

These savage events actually explained that the PKI rebellion in Madiun in 1948 was not self-defense as Aidit echoed. If only defending themselves why did they slaughter innocent kiai and santri and not participate in the conflict, systematically?


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